Write any three measures to conserve ecosystem services
We also help to inform government contributions to the Global Environment Facility and other institutions that help fund solutions to biodiversity loss, climate change, wildlife trafficking and other key challenges of our time.
Write three major to protect wildlife
We first broadly define what is meant by ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation approaches, then, identify ways in which the application of ecosystem services approaches can contribute directly to biodiversity conservation, and, finally, identify situations in which ecosystem services approaches may not be helpful if applied as a substitute for other biodiversity conservation approaches. The second relates to the argument that one needs to clear-cut in order to open up agriculture. However, a study on grasslands at Cedar Creek Reserve in Minnesota supports the redundancy hypothesis, as have many other field studies. The search for economic development in the region is an important one, but pathways towards development have environmental and social costs in terms of the destruction of services of forests. Local farmers had intensified agricultural practices and cleared native vegetation that previously had filtered water before it seeped into the aquifer used by Vittel. Moreover, harvest of selected trees within an area can enhance the experience for some visitors further discussion of silvicultural effects on visitor experiences is provided by Brunson and Mattson and Li Just how much depends on the ways in which researchers interpret their information and the paradigms they use, the level of poverty and so on. In contrast, PES programs that encourage the substitution of one agricultural land use for another may have lower benefits for biodiversity Pagiola et al. Livelihoods Worldwide, governments are recognizing the value of nature to long-term employment and prosperity, as well as the importance of natural resource stewardship to economic and global security. This is an example of a payment for ecosystem services program. The importance of these habitats is that they allow for interactions between different species, aiding the provisioning of marine goods and services. This enables us to directly assist national governments in incorporating global environmental concerns into their policies and programs.
Here we identify three distinct ways in which ecosystem services approaches are being and can be used to directly support biodiversity conservation: the development of broader constituencies for conservation and informing decision-making; opportunities to add or create new value to protected areas; and the opportunities to sustainably manage ecosystems outside of protected areas.
Our efforts help policymakers recognize the direct connection between resource scarcity and global and economic security. Protected areas are specifically designated for a conservation purpose, but often generate other benefits them due to the ecosystem services they provide Dudley, If ecosystem services approaches are applied by conservation planners and managers to achieve biodiversity conservation outcomes, three areas may require special attention: species without utilitarian or economic value; ecological processes that do not directly benefit people; and the ecological functions that may be undermined amidst attempts to optimize key services.
These initiatives are described in Section 4. This is because valuing ecosystems for the services they provide to people will likely result in enhanced conservation for only those species that are ecosystem service providers Luck et al. Even so, estimating the functional structure of an ecosystem and combining it with information about individual species traits can help us understand the resilience of an ecosystem amidst environmental change.
Novel and expedient methods are needed to deal with managing Earth's ecosystem services.
Write any three measures to conserve ecosystem class 10
In Somalia, overharvesting of fish stocks has driven some fishermen to piracy. Portfolio effect[ edit ] A third explanation, known as the portfolio effect, compares biodiversity to stock holdings, where diversification minimizes the volatility of the investment, or in this case, the risk of instability of ecosystem services. Management and policy[ edit ] Although monetary pricing continues with respect to the valuation of ecosystem services, the challenges in policy implementation and management are significant and multitudinous. The search for economic development in the region is an important one, but pathways towards development have environmental and social costs in terms of the destruction of services of forests. Once the input of sewage and pesticides to the watershed area was reduced, natural abiotic processes such as soil absorption and filtration of chemicals, together with biotic recycling via root systems and soil microorganisms , water quality improved to levels that met government standards. In this context, one person or group's economic development can be another person's or group's loss of culture, religion or beliefs. Issues surrounding rights of access by logging companies in countries, such as Papua New Guinea, with customary tenure systems provide examples of conflicts arising over competing values related to services of forests, the rights of indigenous people, and land tenure. Local to regional collective management efforts might be considered appropriate for services like crop pollination or resources like water. They act as sponges when it comes to gases in the atmosphere, retaining large levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. Our data, methods and tools assist governments in understanding the value of oceans, forests, croplands, water supplies and wildlife populations, and help to inform actions necessary to protect these vital natural resources. Thus, we will continue to need focused biodiversity conservation approaches alongside new and evolving ecosystem services approaches if we are to conserve the full range of genes, species, and ecosystems that are important for all life on earth. This may have serious ramifications for biodiversity. Social and cultural issues vary across regions and across cultures within regions. Four different types of ecosystem services have been distinguished by the scientific body: regulating services, provisioning services, cultural services and supporting services.
based on 21 review