How to write a protocol for a systematic review

Studies lacking this information or reported effect sizes that could not be transformed into odds ratios will be excluded from the meta-analyses.

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The mean of the combined effect sizes will be calculated in studies where several effect sizes were reported from the same sample e. Table 1 Search terms used in literature search Full size table Inclusion and exclusion criteria Eligible studies should report empirical findings on the association between exposure to workplace bullying or any overlapping concept and an indicator of sleep e. The systematic procedure substantiates that the literature search comprises all published studies on the relationship between workplace bullying and different sleep parameters. For observational studies, moderate evidence, i. Moderation analyses will also be used to compare associations from cross-sectional and prospective data. The quality of evidence for an association between bullying and sleep problems will evaluated in accordance with the GRADE system. A random effects meta-analysis will be conducted with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, version 3. Although negative social interactions at the workplace, such as bullying, may be especially distressing for those exposed [ 4 , 5 ], previous research on psychosocial work environment factors and sleep has mainly been limited to examining the impact of job demands and control [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. Random effects models allow statistical inferences to be made to a population of studies beyond those included in the meta-analysis [ 34 ]. In a study among victims of bullying, findings revealed a high prevalence of sleep problems, specifically difficulties falling asleep, interrupted sleep, fatigue during the day, and early morning awakening [ 17 ].

Overall, this suggests that the impact of workplace bullying on sleep should be both mediated activation and moderated individual differences by other variables. The quality of the reviewed studies will be scored on a scale from 0 lowest possible quality to 13 highest possible quality.

prisma p protocol template

Moderation analyses will also be used to compare associations from cross-sectional and prospective data. In short, persistent exposure to stressors leads to increased arousal. Using this approach, effect sizes that fell outside the 95th confidence interval of the average effect size will be considered as outliers.

Workplace bullying, defined as a situation wherein an employee persistently and systematically is exposed to harassment and mistreatment at work and wherein this employee finds it difficult to defend him- or herself against this prolonged and unwanted treatment [ 9 ], has been established as a precursor to a range of health complaints including depression and anxiety [ 101112 ], somatic problems [ 11 ], and even symptoms of posttraumatic stress [ 13 ].

Prisma systematic review example

To this date, we know that physical and psychosocial working conditions are associated with a range of negative outcomes, including sleep problems [ 3 ]. Studies lacking this information or reported effect sizes that could not be transformed into odds ratios will be excluded from the meta-analyses. Included studies will be manually screened in order to select other relevant studies. Secondly, unpublished studies may be of lower methodological quality than published studies. The Cochrane Handbook outlines some questions to ask yourself before refining your question: Cochrane Handbook, Chapter 5. The overall magnitude of this association will be established by means of a meta-analytic synthesis. A minimum of two studies is considered sufficient to perform a meta-analysis [ 26 ]. What if my question changes? In a study of 60 meta-analyses that included published and unpublished studies it was found that unpublished studies were less likely to conceal intervention allocation adequately and to blind outcome assessments [ 38 ]. By gathering and summarizing information about potential factors that can explain when and how bullying is related to sleep, the findings from this study will provide directions for future research and provide practitioners and clinicians with an understanding about the nature and consequences of workplace bullying and point to directions for relevant interventions. The review will be limited to articles published in peer-reviewed journals in English, German, French, or the Scandinavian languages Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish. To reduce these costs, knowledge about the antecedents and risk factors for sleep problems is therefore of major significance. As the planned review will be based on a comprehensive literature search of studies published in peer reviewed journals, the scientific quality of the included studies should be ensured while they at the same time also should be representative for the published literature on workplace bullying and sleep. As associations based on prospective data are dependent upon the utilized time-lag between measurement points [ 24 ], it is important to also include cross-sectional data.

Sometimes, however, it might be necessary to completely refine your question. Table 2 Checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality of the reviewed studies Full size table The quality of evidence for an association between bullying and sleep problems will be evaluated in accordance with the GRADE system [ 30 ].

Insomnia and the performance of US workers: results from the America insomnia survey. PROSPERO - International prospective register of systematic reviews Once you have written a draft of your protocol, have it peer reviewed by someone outside of your research team.

For high evidence, the requirements are a randomized, double-blinded study design with no selection biases.

prisma systematic review

This kind of data is prone to be influenced by common method bias as well as response set bias such as expectations, previous experiences, or health status. This can be frustrating and add more time to your project.

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