Criteria The American College of Rheumatology ACR established eleven criteria in which were revised in  as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials.
Renal failure and sepsis are two main causes of death in patients with SLE. Pulmonary hypertension without underlying parenchymal lung disease rarely occurs with symptomatic dyspnea or right-sided heart failure 3.
For the purpose of identifying people for clinical studies, a person has SLE if any 4 out of 11 symptoms are present simultaneously or serially on two separate occasions. Interest in the disease has been stimulated in recent years, and improved methods of diagnosis have resulted in a significant increase in the number of cases recognized.
Hahn BH. On the other hand, some blood tests can lead to overdiagnosis, because people without lupus can have the same antibodies as those with the condition. There is also a higher risk of pregnancy complications, including a loss of pregnancy. In SLE, the body's immune system produces antibodies against itself, particularly against proteins in the cell nucleus.
A kidney biopsy is done to detect the extent of damage to the kidney and to help guide treatment. Ocular manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus.
For others, the person may need to collect samples over 24 hours.