See further discussion of ICT funding in Section 3.The following conclusions have been drawn from this assessment: The ICT Organisation is a shifting organism that morphs to suit changes its environment. A balance is needed between these types of users to avoid killing the whole business in the long run. Once each of the components has been assessed, a consolidated view should be taken in order to get the total picture and to determine the most preferable sequence of changes. As a result, regardless of certification or policy, if a base lacked the funding to implement a system, implementation did not occur. These informal communication channels could be very helpful, but they further increased the likelihood that local units would find their own ways to interpret central guidance. Clarify initial ownership of assets Clarify legal relationships between parties Clarify management financial, facility and technical responsibilities Clarify program educational responsibilities. As such the people factor cannot be taken for granted. Local units are focused on their functional missions; they expect that those missions will be enabled, not disrupted, by their ICT. This can be a way to bring money, but also business experience, into the ICT Center business. In this case, uncertainty grew over time as managers became increasingly aware of how Y2K risk was complicated by the cross-functional, interdependent aspects of ICT. Rather than evolving from central awareness and management to local execution, the Y2K experience—as with most large ICT problems—evolved from local identification and action to central awareness and management AFCA. The question is how best to position ICT to contribute in this environment? This process was similar to the evolution of Y2K in industry.
The first four of these areas are discussed in Section 3. Multiple ownership and guidance may confuse individual users as to who is responsible for the different parts of the complex systems they rely on, but central owners and maintainers of those systems face the equally confusing task of understanding and managing a complex system of systems that spans significantly different functional and geographical environments.
Essentially, the organizational structure for the ICT Center needs to be in place before the project ends, or even before the project starts. The success record of large ICT projects throughout government and industry is very poor see Section 3.
Each related pattern has the potential to generate tensions across those layers.
This is the permanent government and management structure of the ICT Center. See Section 3. This schema shows the ICT Center conceptualized as a separate business.